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Food and Drug Administration has incorporated water activity into safety regulations. These regulations detail specific requirements and practices to assure that products are produced under sanitary conditions and are pure, wholesome, and safe.
Use the table below as a reference to U. Without an accurate, product-specific shelf life, you could be scrapping expired product that is still good.
Or selling unexpired product that is actually bad. Or giving up significant shelf life that would come from better packaging.
It involves complex relationships between moisture, temperature, and product failure modes. Any number of things could make your product unsafe or unpalatable—mold, microbial growth , rancidity, changes in texture or flavor, vitamin degradation.
There is a scientifically sound alternative to this kind of shelf life testing. How does water activity simplify shelf life?
Your shelf life data can provide valuable insights to help you stop product failure, predict and lengthen shelf life, choose the most cost-effective packaging , and more.
There are three main factors that influence shelf life: microbial properties, chemical changes, and physical deterioration. All of these factors are connected to water activity.
Microorganisms have a limiting water activity level below which they will not grow. Water may be present, even at high content levels, in a product, but if its energy level is sufficiently low, the microorganisms cannot remove the water to support their growth.
Consequently, the microbes cannot grow. Mold and microbial growth are the most dangerous threats to shelf life. Controlling water activity can inhibit or preclude microbial growth, extend shelf life, and allow some products to be safely stored without refrigeration.
Using well-defined tables, you can set a water activity limit for your product and use this in shelf life testing.
Vibrio cholerae low-salt bacon, cooked sausages, nasal spray, eye drops 0. Water activity growth limits for many common microorganisms But how can you use this knowledge to your advantage in formulation, specification, production, and packaging?
Watch our latest webinar to learn:. Water activity influences deteriorative chemical reaction rates because water acts as a solvent, can be a reactant itself, or can change the mobility of reactants through viscosity.
For example, non-enzymic browning reactions increase with increasing water activity to a maximum at 0. Optimum chemical stability is generally found near the monolayer moisture content, as determined from moisture sorption isotherms.
Issues include loss of crispness in dry products, caking and clumping of powders, and toughness or chewiness in moist products. Finding the critical water activity for your product can involve some research, but water activity makes it much easier to do.
Water activity changes during shipping and storage can profoundly influence shelf life. Water activity is a function of temperature, and shipping and storage temperatures can affect water activity inside the package.
Simplified shelf life testing can help you determine the best packaging and evaluate the effect of shipping and storage conditions on the shelf life of your product.
Still have questions about the basics? Get the essentials of water activity condensed in this minute webinar. Food manufacturers need to know how long it will be before their product molds , gets soggy, goes stale, becomes rancid, cakes, clumps , crystallizes, and becomes unacceptable to the consumer.
The moisture sorption isotherm is a powerful tool for predicting and extending the shelf life of a product.
It allows you to:. A moisture sorption isotherm is a graph showing how water activity a w changes as water is adsorbed into and desorbed from a product held at constant temperature.
This relationship is complex and unique for each product. Water activity almost always increases as moisture content increases, but the relationship is not linear.
Then, the sample is weighed to determine water content. Each sample produces one point on the isotherm curve. Because the process takes so long, curves were traditionally constructed using five or six data points with curve-fitting equations like GAB or BET.
Creating moisture sorption isotherms by hand is painstaking. The method needed automation. The method first used—and still used by most vapor sorption instruments—is called DVS, or dynamic vapor sorption.
A sample is exposed to a stream of humidity-controlled air while a microbalance measures tiny changes in weight as the product adsorbs or desorbs water.
Once equilibrium is achieved, the instrument dynamically steps to the next preset humidity level.
Tests take anywhere from two days to several weeks. The DVS method works well for investigating the kinetics of sorption—what happens to a product as it is exposed to certain humidities and how fast it adsorbs or desorbs water.
The vapor pressure of a salt or sugar solution is reduced in comparison to that of pure water. The amount of vapor in the surrounding air generally is measured as relative humidity.
At the equilibrium point, water is neither given off nor absorbed. The vapor pressure of the food product then becomes identical to that of the surrounding air.
The equipment suitable for the measurement of water activity can be the same as that used for the measurement of relative humidity provided that the sensing element used can be made captive or otherwise isolated with a sample of the product to be measured.
A basic measuring technique utilizes a sealed dish or container with the sensor mounted above the test sample. For initial screening purposes, all FDA district laboratories are equipped with the Abbeon a w-Value Analyzer a hair hygrometer.
Samples can be tested in duplicate. The instruments are used to set up a reference chart with data obtained from checks of reliable humidity generators.
Salt slushes of known a w values such as sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, and potassium sulfate can be used. Auf keinen fall dein zeremoniell.
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As temperature increases, a w typically increases, except in some products with crystalline salt or sugar. Higher a w substances tend to support more microorganisms.
Water migrates from areas of high a w to areas of low a w. Relationship to relative humidity : The relative humidity of air in equilibrium with a sample is called the Equilibrium Relative Humidity ERH.
Food designers use water activity to formulate shelf-stable food. If a product is kept below a certain water activity, then mold growth is inhibited.
This results in a longer shelf life. Water activity values can also help limit moisture migration within a food product made with different ingredients.
If raisins of a higher water activity are packaged with bran flakes of a lower water activity, the water from the raisins migrates to the bran flakes over time, making the raisins hard and the bran flakes soggy.
Food formulators use water activity to predict how much moisture migration affects their product. Water activity is used in many cases as a critical control point for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points HACCP programs.
Samples of the food product are periodically taken from the production area and tested to ensure water activity values are within a specified range for food quality and safety.
Measurements can be made in as little as five minutes, and are made regularly in most major food production facilities. For many years, researchers tried to equate bacterial growth potential with water content.
They found that the values were not universal, but specific to each food product.