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It was also sometimes made of stone. Cong Article Media Additional Info. Home Visual Arts Decorative Art.
Print Cite. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. Beth Harris. Jade Cong , c.
Ancient China includes the Neolithic period 10, -2, B. Each age was distinct, but common to each period were grand burials for the elite from which a wealth of objects have been excavated.
The Neolithic Period, defined as the age before the use of metal, witnessed a transition from a nomadic existence to one of settled farming.
People made different pottery and stone tools in their regional communities. Stone workers employed jade to make prestigious, beautifully polished versions of utilitarian stone tools, such as axes, and also to make implements with possible ceremonial or protective functions.
The status of jade continues throughout Chinese history. A group of Neolithic peoples grouped today as the Liangzhu culture lived in the Jiangsu province of China during the third millennium B.
Their jades, ceramics and stone tools were highly sophisticated. They used two distinct types of ritual jade objects: a disc, later known as a bi, and a tube, later known as a cong.
The main types of cong have a square outer section around a circular inner part, and a circular hole, though jades of a bracelet shape also display some of the characteristics of cong.
They clearly had great significance, but despite the many theories the meaning and purpose of bi and cong remain a mystery. They were buried in large numbers: one tomb alone had 25 bi and 33 cong.
Spectacular examples have been found at all the major archaeological sites. Interest in the jade shape developed during the 12thth century Song dynasty.
The shape continued to be used in ceramic and metalwork for centuries. In form, a cong is a straight tube with a circular bore and square outer section with more or less convex sides.
The outer surface is divided vertically or horizontally such that the whole defines a hollow cylinder embedded in a partial rectangular block.
Proportions vary - a cong may be squat or taller than it is wide. The outer faces are sometimes decorated with mask-like faces, which may be related to the taotie designs found on later bronze vessels.
Although generally considered to be a ritual object of some sort, the original function and meaning of the cong are unknown.
Later writings speak of the cong as symbolizing the earth, while the bi represents the heavens. The square represents the earth and a circle represents the heavens.Familienspiele Brettspiele Catholic records for Cong do not survive from before Elections on reunification were scheduled for July Pictures of Dak Son can be viewed here. Views Read Edit View history.